Female Monk (Bhikkhuni) In Buddhism

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Things are changing, therefore why can’t Buddhism have Bhikkhunis if our vice president is a woman? Traditional Buddhist teachings did not address whether a female monk (bhikkhuni) may advance to the rank of full-fledged monk, but an increasing number of Thai Buddhists are working to change this.

Female monk (bhikkhuni) in Buddhism

According to Thai law, monks must be male. The ordination of women is prohibited by the Sangha Act of 1928. Advocates have attempted to reverse the 1928 decree in the past, but their efforts have failed. The Sangha Supreme Council, the religion’s solely male governing body made up of the nation’s most senior monks, has consistently defended the stance. And while the bhikkhunis have found their society to be mostly receptive, they have still run against opposition from people who think female monastics are forbidden across the nation.

Even though the Thai Constitution guarantees equal rights, changing these laws is difficult. The bhikkhunis always get the short end of the stick because it might be difficult to strike a balance between state law and Buddhist law. Those sticking to what they believe to be the purity of a monk’s identity are the most traditional monks on the Council who have the authority to modify the oldest law from 1928.

Changing the 1928 Buddhist law

Social Activism and Grassroots Movements:

Beyond legal avenues, social activism and grassroots movements have played a crucial role in raising awareness about gender inequality within Thai Buddhism. Women's rights activists, Buddhist scholars, and progressive monks have mobilized public support through education campaigns, public demonstrations, and advocacy initiatives. These efforts have aimed to challenge entrenched gender norms and promote inclusive interpretations of Buddhist teachings.

Cultural and Religious Resistance:

Despite growing calls for change, opposition to women's ordination persists within certain segments of Thai society. Traditionalists argue that altering centuries-old practices would undermine the integrity of the monastic tradition and disrupt social harmony. Moreover, deeply ingrained cultural beliefs about gender roles continue to shape attitudes toward women's participation in religious life.

The Role of International Influence:

The debate over women's ordination in Thai Buddhism has also attracted attention on the international stage. Global movements for gender equality and women's rights have provided moral support and solidarity to local advocates in Thailand. Furthermore, international organizations and human rights bodies have pressured the Thai government to address gender discrimination within the religious sphere.

Future Prospects and Challenges:

As Thailand continues to undergo social and cultural transformations, the issue of women's ordination in Buddhism remains a dynamic and evolving discourse. While entrenched opposition and legal barriers persist, incremental progress is being made through ongoing advocacy efforts and shifting social attitudes. However, achieving substantive reform will require sustained dialogue, collaboration across diverse stakeholders, and a commitment to challenging entrenched patriarchal structures.


The prohibition of women's ordination in Thai Buddhism, enshrined in the Sangha Act of 1928, reflects complex intersections of religious tradition, cultural norms, and gender dynamics. Despite challenges and resistance, advocates continue to push for greater gender equality within the monastic community, highlighting the need for inclusive interpretations of Buddhist teachings and ongoing dialogue within Thai society. Ultimately, the journey toward gender equality in Thai Buddhism requires navigating a delicate balance between tradition and progress, while ensuring that the voices and rights of women are fully recognized and respected within the religious sphere.